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prepositions - part 1

It’s never easy getting your head round all the prepositions, especially as usage isn’t always identical as in English. Here we take a look at the more common prepositions that you’re likely to meet in everyday conversation. Note that some prepositions cause mutation of the following word - this will be denoted by [sm] for Soft Mutation, [nm] for Nasal Mutation, and [am] for Aspirate Mutation.

By the way, an easy way to remember which prepositions take Soft Mutations is to memorise this little poem:

am ar at gan
heb i o dan
dros trwy wrth hyd

about
- approximately = tua [am]
- concerning = am [sm]
= yngly^n [sm]
= ynghylch
- around = o gwmpas
= o angylch
- about to (do something) = ar fin
= ar
 
as
- general usage = fel
e.g. she has a job as a secretary
- when, in the form of = yn
e.g. he lived in Abertawe as a teenager
she bought the plant as a present
 
at
- location = yn [nm] cf. 'in'
- beside = wrth
- time = am [sm]
- age = yn [sm]
 
by
- location = wrth
= wrth ochor
= wrth ochr
= wrth ymyl
- past = heibio
- by (someone or something) = gan
- by means of = [nm]
- author, etc. = gan
- method = drwy [sm]
= tryw [sm]
- transportation = ar [sm]
= gyda [nm]
- time = erbyn
 
for
- general usage = i [sm] (in the sense of something received)
= ar gyfer (in the sense of 'for the benefit of')
- in favour of = o blaid
- on behalf of = dros [sm]
- at a future time = am [sm]
- at some past time = ers
-in exchange for = am [sm]
- in preparation for = at [ sm]
= ar gyfer
 
from
- direction = o [sm]
- in letters = oddi wrth [sm]
= oddiwrth [sm]
- from on top of something = oddiar [sm]
= oddi ar [sm]
- receipt of money, etc = gan
- with words like 'prevent', 'stop' = rhag
 
in
- specific = yn [nm]
- non-specific = mewn
- at the end of a period of time = ymhen
 
of
- genitive phrases, e.g. top of the mountain = not translated
- quantity = o [sm]
- in singling something out = o [sm]
- about, concerning = am
 
on
- location = ar [sm]
- talking about transport = ar [sm]
- in media, e.g. television = ar [sm]
- about = am [sm]
- time = ar [sm]
 
over
- location or motion = dros
- in excess of = dros
- during = yn ystod
= dros
- above = uwchben
- covering = dros
 
to
- general usages = i [sm]
- in telling the time = i [sm]
- writing or sending something to someone = at [sm]
- with some verbs/adjectives = wrth
- towards = tua [nm]
- with verbnouns implying purpose = i [sm]
- in order to = er mwyn
- with verbnouns implying instruction = am [sm]
- with infinitives = not translated
 
under
- location = dan [sm]
= o dan [sm]
- less than = llai na [nm]
 
with
- general usage = gyda (= 'da) [am]
= efo (Northern variant)
- by means of = [am]
- because of = gan [sm]
- against = yn erbyn
- to be ... with someone = wrth [sm]

get the text document

 

     

© suw charman 2002, 2003 unless otherwise stated

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