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verbnoun stems

rules for regular stems

1. Verb-Nouns that end in a vowel drop their final vowel, e.g.:

talu = tal- pay
codi = cod- rise, raise
ffonio = ffoni- phone

2. VNs ending in -au change to -eu-, e.g.:

dechrau = dechreu- begin

3. VNs ending in a consonant usually stay the same, e.g.:

eistedd = eistedd- sit
symud = symud- move
agor = agor- open

irregular stems

However, some VNs add and -i-, or make an internal change, e.g.:

derbyn = derbyni- accept/receive
dal = dali- catch
dianc = dihang- escape
ennill = enill- win
aros = arhos- wait
dweud = dwed-, or wed- or dywed- say/tell

List of some common irregular stems

addo = addaw- promise
amgau = amgae- enclose
aros = arhos- wait
cau = cae- close/shut
cerdded = cerdd- walk
cyfnewid = cefnewidi- exchange
cymryd = cymer- take
cynnal = cynhali- hold (a meeting)
cyrraedd = cyrhaedd- arrive, reach
dadlau = dadleu- argue
dal = dali- catch
derbyn = derbyni- accept/receive
dianc = dihang- escape
dweud = dwed-, or wed-, or dywed- say/tell
dychwelyd = dychwel- return
ennill = enill- win
gadael = gadaw- leave, let
galw = galw- call
gweld = gwel- see
llenwi = llenw- fill (up/in)
meddwl = meddyli- think, mean
newid = newidi- change
rhedeg = rhed- run
sefyll = sef-, or saf- stand
troi = tro-, or trodd- turn
yfed = yf- drink
ymadael = ymadaw- leave (intransitive)
ymweld = ymwel- visit

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© suw charman 2002, 2003 unless otherwise stated

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