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  this, that and the other

There are several ways of saying ‘this/these’ or ‘that/those’ in Welsh, depending on the gender and quanitity of the things indicated.

The first way is used for pointing out single things ore general groups of things, and is equivalent to ‘this one’ or ‘those ones’ etc.

hwn this one (masculine) hwnnw/hwnna that one (masculine)
hon this one (feminine) honno/honna that one (feminine)
hyn this (general) hynny that (general)
y rhain these (ones) y rheina/rheiny those (ones)

There are then two ways of saying ‘that book’ or ‘this cat’ etc. One uses hwn, hon, etc. as above, the other uses ‘yma’ (here) and ‘yna’ (there), which are usually shortened to ‘ma and ‘na.

the ‘hwn’ system
y llyfr hwn this book y llyfr hwwnw that book
y llyfrau hyn these books y llyfrau hynny those books

y gath hon this cat y gath honno that cat
y cathod hyn these cats y cathod hynny those cats

the ‘yma/yna’ system
y peth ‘ma this thing y peth ‘na that thing
y pethau ‘ma these things y pethau ‘na those things

Note: The 'hwn' system is more formal, and the latter 'yma/yna' system is easiest because you do not need to know the gender of the item you are discussing.

the others…
The word for ‘other’ in Welsh is ‘arall’, and the plural form is ‘eraill’, thus you have ‘y person arall’ (the other person), and ‘y bobl eraill’ (the other people); and ‘yr un arall’ (the other one), and ‘yr rhai eraill’ (the other ones).

‘Arall’ is also used for ‘another’, e.g. ‘diod arall’ (another drink). ‘Un arall’ (another one) is the prounoun form, e.g. ‘Wyt ti eisiau un arall?’ (do you want another one?)

When ‘other’ is used as a pronoun, then you use ‘llall’ (singular) or ‘lleill’ (plural), thus you have ‘beth am y llall?’ (what about the other [one]?), or ‘beth am y lleill?’ (what about the others?).

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© suw charman 2002, 2003 unless otherwise stated

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