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my cat...
When saying that something is yours, in the format 'my…', you must use the possessive adjective, e.g. 'fy', with an optional echoing pronoun, 'i'.

my fy (nm)... i, or 'n (nm)... i, or just nm
your dy (sm)... di
his ei (sm)... fe
her ei (am)... hi
our ein... ni
your eich... chi
their eu... nhw

e.g. fy nghath, dy gath, ei gath, ei chath. Note, that the echoing pronoun at the end is only used for emphasis, e.g. it's my cat, (not yours). Also the singular possessive adjectives cause mutation. In the case of 'my', nasal mutation alone can be enough to indicate possession, so 'fy' can be missed off completely e.g. nghar - my car.

I've got a cat...
When you're saying that you've got something, you can use one of
two constructions: a construction common in South Wales using ‘bod’ and 'gyda', and a construction more common in North Wales using ‘bod’ and ‘gan’.

The southern construction uses the existential of ‘bod’ with ‘gyda’, e.g.
‘Mae car gyda fi’, literally ‘There is a car with me’. ‘Gyda’ is often shortened to ‘da, for a more natural feel, e.g. ‘Mae car ‘da fi’.

The interrogative and negative forms are created in the same way as with the existential, e.g. ‘Oes car ‘da fi?’, ‘Have I got a car?’; and ‘Does dim car ‘da fi’, ‘I haven’t got a car’. Remember that ‘does dim’ can be shortened to ‘sdim’, e.g. ‘Sdim car ‘da fi’.

This way of denoting possession be extended to other persons very simply:
Mae car ‘da John - John’s got a car
Oes cath ‘da ti? - Have you got a cat?
Does dim gwallt pinc ‘da hi - She hasn’t got pink hair

As with the existential, you can use ‘‘na’ after ‘bod’. Remember that ‘na causes soft mutation, but that ‘ddim’ blocks the mutation of the following word e.g.:

Mae ‘na gar ‘da John
Oes ‘na gath ‘da ti?
Does ‘na ddim gwallt pinc ‘da hi

Don’t let these variations confuse you - find out what local usage is and stick to it.

The northern construction uses the existential of bod with personal forms of ‘gan’ (with), e.g. ‘mae gen i gar’, literally ‘There is with me a car’.

(I) have have (I)? (I) haven't
Mae gen i Oes gen i? Does gen i ddim
Mae gen ti Oes gen ti? Does gen ti ddim
Mae gynno fo Oes gynno fo? Does gynno fo ddim
Mae gynni hi Oes gynni hi? Does gynni hi ddim
Mae gynnon ni Oes gynnon ni? Does gynnon ni ddim
Mae gynnoch chi Oes gynnoch chi? Does gynnoch chi ddim
Mae gynnyn nhw Oes gynnyn nhw? Does gynnyn nhw ddim

Note: ‘Oes’ is often shortened to ‘s’, thus: ‘Sgen i?’, ‘Sgen ti?’, ‘Sgenno fo?’ etc. as is ‘does’, thus: ‘Sgen i ddim’, ‘Sgen ti ddim’, ‘Sgenno fo ddim’ etc.

Remember that there is soft mutation after the pronoun, so ‘Mae gen i gath’ and ‘Sgen ti wallt pinc?’, but the mutation blocked by ‘ddim’ so ‘Sgynni hi ddim ty^ newydd’.

I’ve got a headache
It’s important to note that when talking about having an illness, usually you say that something is ‘on’ you. For example, if you have a cold you say ‘Mae annwyd arna i’, lit. ‘There is a cold on me’, i.e. ‘I’ve got a cold’.

Equally, this construction is used for thirst and hunger: ‘Mae syched arna i’, ‘I’m thirsty’; ‘Oes eisiau bwyd ar y plant?’, ‘Are the children hungry?’.

If, however, you are taking about a part of the body, then the gyda/gan construction is used, e.g. ‘Mae pen tost ‘da fi’, ‘I’ve got a headache’; or ‘Oes clust dost ‘da ti?’, ‘Have you got earache?’.

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© suw charman 2002, 2003 unless otherwise stated

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